諾貝爾登頂,科月四十年和文化創造

專題報導 10/01/2009

九月初,暑期因八八水災引起的社會和政治衝擊,稍事歇息。九月三日台灣媒體刊出消息,由國科會推動進行的「學術攻頂研究計畫」,公布了頭一批獲選名單,這回入選的有四位研究者,分別是化學、物理、水文和海洋以及分子生物的領域,國科會說這次入選者,是由申請的六十四位學者中選出,每位研究者每年最高可獲兩千萬研究經費,一次補助五年。由於這個計畫以爭取我們科學家贏得諾貝爾獎為一目標,因此也有「諾貝爾登頂計畫」的稱號。

對於諾貝爾獎的迷信,是近代社會的一個普遍現象,不但一般市井人士對之欽羨崇仰,學術中人更少有能夠無視其魅力光環,得之者欣然喜悅,自認應得而未獲者,則多扼然而有戚戚焉,這由科學家和學術人物的傳記和學界傳聞,便可知一二。

諾貝爾獎成為學術的一個無上冠冕,二戰後普遍大力投入科學研究的世界各國,對之莫不重視,也不可避免地以得到諾貝爾獎的數目,作為國家學術或科學成就的一個標誌。

這種以諾貝爾獎為學術標的的心態,愈是得獎少的國家,就愈是嚴重,尤其是二戰後的一些經濟新興國家,眼見自己的整體國力逐漸提升,但就因為還缺了諾貝爾獎的加持,便依然是怏怏然若有所失。

在這些新興國家當中,東亞國家表現最為積極,其中又以韓國最具代表性。韓國自韓戰後成就其經濟建設,成為東亞四小龍之列,但對於其本身的學術文化,相較於東亞近鄰中國和日本的瞠乎其後,耿耿於懷到幾乎心神失衡的狀態。
在這些學術文化的表現當中,最令韓國難忍的,是相對於中國和日本,他們科學家在諾貝爾獎項當中,是一個掛零的局面。這也造成韓國社會一種溢於言表的諾貝爾獎焦慮症。

這種諾貝爾獎焦慮症在韓國多處可見,譬如十多年前,在當時還叫做漢城的韓國首都市中心的一個書城,其進門口走廊兩邊掛滿了獲得諾貝爾獎的世界大科學家,而其中居然掛有一個沒有照片的相框,下面寫著「這是預留給未來的韓國諾貝爾獎得主」。而由浦項大鋼廠所設立的浦項科技大學的校園中,有一個四個雕像座的庭院,其中三個放上了世界知名的大科學家,空著的一個也寫著是為保留給未來韓國的世界大科學家。

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韓國的勃勃雄心,近年在奧運和運動項目方面,確實獲得了一些成績,近年來更有諸多夸夸其談的文化歷史的澎風,好像環宇諸事之首,皆非韓莫屬。但是在某一個標準下可說規範森嚴的諾貝爾科學獎,韓國依然是望不可及,雖然他們也曾採取大力增加科研經費,甚至將美國諾貝爾獎得主挖到韓國擔任大學校長,但是到頭來卻都沒有看到太正面的成效。

在東亞國家中,譬如中國大陸以及台灣,也都有類似針對諾貝爾獎的計畫,似乎也是引起爭議的多,獲得效益的少。但是由於以華裔科學家來說,至少已有六位獲得了諾貝爾獎,相對來說諾貝爾獎焦慮症,就不像韓國那樣的嚴重。

在東亞的中、日、韓三個國家中,獲得諾貝爾獎最多的,無疑是日本,這其中的道理很多,也有許多討論;其中日本近代科學傳統的最為悠久,日本科學體系的一些特性,甚至日本對於自己文化的肯定態度,也多有論及。

就諾貝爾獎來說,日本近年的成就最是驚人,自二〇〇〇年起就有白川英樹得到化學獎,二〇〇一年化學獎又有日本科學家野依良治得獎,二〇〇二年則不但物理獎由小柴昌俊獲得,化學獎中也有日本化學家田中耕一。去年日本在諾貝爾獎的表現,更是一鳴驚人,不但物理獎三位得主的南部陽一郎、小林誠和益川敏英,都是日本科學家,化學獎裡也有一位日本科學家下村脩,南部陽一郎雖然是長在美國,但是他的科學訓練和早期工作,卻都是在日本完成的。

日本這些令人訝異的諾貝爾獎成就,引起了許多討論,許多人卻指出來,譬如白川英樹所在的筑波大學,野依良治所在的名古屋大學,以及田中耕一出身的東北大學,都並非頂尖名校,諾貝爾獎得主田中耕一也只有工程師訓練。這些不但顛覆當今學術過份講究的體系規範,而在這些諾貝爾獎得主當中,許多是日本過去舊學術傳統訓練產生,那個傳統特別講究的是在日本國內的資歷,不看重海外學歷資歷,早期的制度類似師徒體系,一個大教授就有很高的權威和決定權。

十多年前,日本有過一股風潮,要改變過去這些傳統,向美國較自由的制度取經,也做了一些改革,譬如聘回在美國IBM多年的諾貝爾獎得主江崎玲於奈,擔任筑波大學校長。最近這些年在諾貝爾獎的佳績,會不會改變日本學術界欣羨他人的想法,有待觀察,對於近鄰的中國和韓國有何影響,也值得注意。

國科會等「諾貝爾獎攻頂計畫」公佈以後,九月十九日國內歷史最悠久的《科學月刊》,為慶祝其明年的發行四十週年,舉行頭一個暖身茶會,慶祝一九六九年《科學月刊》的第零期出刊。

如同台灣學術界的許多活動,這個慶祝茶會也是行禮如儀,沒有特別可以引人討論的事情,而《科學月刊》的這個活動,更顯現出它長久以來一種同仁雜誌的親和氣氛,反應的正是《科學月刊》倡辦人林孝信演講中所揭示的主軸,「理想、啟蒙、奉獻」。

如果說這個《科學月刊》第零期發行四十週年慶祝會有什麼特別不同,乃是會中邀請了在中研院史語所多年,雖然「論文太少」,但在社會科普工作上卻著有表現的王道還做一演講。王道還是《科學月刊》的長久成員,他的演講題目「科普作為一種志業;使命、責任、實踐」,也符合《科學月刊》和台灣科學界對科學認知的方向。

結果出人意料的,王道還卻做了一個他自己承認相當大膽,內心十分緊張,卻十分有創新視野的精彩演講。在他以高亢語氣完成四十五分鐘演講之後,反應相當熱烈,隨後的一些發言者也多表示,他們很同意王道還的許多批評。

王道還的演講,開始是以西方的權威學者,來界定他演講要界定的科學。他引用韋伯(Max Weber)九十一年前的一個演講,先界定科學與信仰的不同,也界定科學的無法決定哲學是非和價值。

接著他十分透視性的指出,一九六九年在美國倡意起步,隨即回台發行的《科學月刊》,與一九一五年在美國哈佛大學由趙元任等一些中國學者創立的科學社,在精神上的一脈相承,都是「啟蒙理想的信徒」,也就是都把科學推高到一個價值標準的理想境地。王道還借用一位法國學者的文章,認為這種猶如催眠式的啟蒙主義,下場都是「無以為繼」。科學社已「無以為繼」,「科學月刊社」也困難重重。

王道還提出的道理是,由於國家機器供養的「職業」科學家社群興起,「科普成為錦上添花的慈善行動」,「職業」科學家忙於「正事」,自然不會有興趣及於科學的社會文化影響。

王道還在演講中指出,自一九一九年「五四運動」以降,科學就是全民運動,「賽先生」是「五四餘孽」,但到今天九十年之後,應該「功成身退」了。

王道還演講的新意是,在今日的新時代裏,科學社群面對的是新的挑戰,供養「職業」科學家納稅人已覺醒,他們不接受科學就是「啟蒙」的道德上風,認清了科學是「一種極其特殊的認知模式」,在近代國家機器介入之前,事實上「只有極少數人從事科學研究」。

他提出受社會供養的「職業」科學家,應該正視對社會的責任,以將科學知識的推廣,作為科學社群與納稅人的橋樑,改變過去安於在學術象牙塔中,使用社會資源只為產生學術文獻的自滿心態。王道還的演講中,用了一個超越《科學月刊》的警句,指出科學知識的社會化(他用的是「科普」),是科學家的正當出路。
比起許多引經據典卻沒有深刻觀點的演講,王道還的這場演講,應該是極有價值的,甚至可以將之類比於一九五九年史諾(C.P.Snow)在英國劍橋大學的「兩種文化與科學革命」演講。可惜的是,不但以隱私政爭為賣點訴求的報紙媒體無一字報導,學術文化界亦少有討論。

其實由「諾貝爾登頂計畫」的受到「職業」科學家的注意和競逐,到王道還演講的無人聞問,反映的正是我們學術文化一種真實面向。在這個面向的背後,正是因為「職業科學家忙於正事」,只關注所謂近世的國際學術標準,不思即使諾貝爾獎也只是人訂標準,這正是自「五四運動」以來我人推展科學或學術,一個思想啟蒙的「文化失根」危機。

二次戰後國家機器大力投資科學和學術研究,而半個多世紀的經濟擴張發展,似乎合理化了這種投資的正當性。面對近世科學和資本體系發展,如今遭逢供需失衡的經濟大風暴困局,如果回到王道還演講中提出的學術社群對於納稅人的契約義務,納稅人支持的學術文化,要回應當前社會大變局的需要,難道只能有生產更多論文和培養諾貝爾獎得主這樣一個方向?
【知識通訊評論月刊八十四期】2009.10.01

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